Basic Research 173 articles
Progress in the diagnosis and prediction of fragility fractures depends on improvements to the understating of the compositional contributors of bone quality to mechanical competence. Raman spectroscopy has been used to evaluate alterations to bone composition associated with aging, disease, or injury.
Infection is a major clinical complication of orthopaedic implants and prosthetic devices, and patients with traumatic open fractures have a high risk of infection that may exceed 30%. Surgical trauma, burns, and major injuries such as traumatic open fractures induce immunosuppression, decrease resistance to infection, and decrease production of T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines.
Currently, the movement that occurs at the site of soft tissue repair cannot be measured accurately in vivo. Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is the gold standard for measuring movement between two skeletal segments in vivo but its application to studying soft tissue migration has been limited by the unknown stability of tantalum beads in tendons and ligaments and their ability to define rigid bodies in these structures.
Recent advances in technology and the use of image archiving and communication systems (PACS) has led some institutions to abandon conventional plain film radiography and rely solely on digital computed radiography. The level of accuracy of digital radiography in measuring distances for orthopaedic applications is unclear.
Osteogenic Protein-1 Delivered by Hydroxyapatite-coated Implants Improves Bone Ingrowth in Extracortical Bone Bridging
Extracortical bone bridging for treatment of massive bone loss can improve stability and longevity of massive endoprostheses. Osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1), when used with allograft bone, reportedly improves extracortical bone bridging and bone ingrowth.
Cell therapy using autologous cells has been used in the treatment of various medical conditions. The mononuclear cell (MNC) fraction of bone marrow (BM) contains stem/progenitor cells that could contribute to osteogenesis and angiogenesis.
Rodent lumbar and caudal (tail) spine segments provide useful in vivo and in vitro models for human disc research. In vivo caudal models allow characterization of the effect of static and dynamic loads on disc mechanics of individual animals with time, but the lumbar models have required sacrifice of the animals for in vitro mechanical testing.
2010 Nicolas Andry Award: Multipotent Adult Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue for Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering
Cell-based therapies such as tissue engineering provide promising therapeutic possibilities to enhance the repair or regeneration of damaged or diseased tissues but are dependent on the availability and controlled manipulation of appropriate cell sources.
Although pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) are used to treat delayed unions and nonunions, their mechanisms of action are not completely clear. However, PEMFs are known to affect the expression of certain genes.