Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research ®

A Publication of The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons ®

Basic Research 173 articles


pHEMA-nHA Encapsulation and Delivery of Vancomycin and rhBMP-2 Enhances its Role as a Bone Graft Substitute

Xinning Li MD, Jianwen Xu PhD, Tera M. Filion PhD, David C. Ayers MD, Jie Song PhD

Bone grafts are widely used in orthopaedic procedures. Autografts are limited by donor site morbidity while allografts are known for considerable infection and failure rates. A synthetic composite bone graft substitute poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (pHEMA-nHA) was previously developed to stably press-fit in and functionally repair critical-sized rat femoral segmental defects when it was preabsorbed with a single low dose of 300 ng recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2/7 (rhBMP-2/7).

A Supplemental Video Teaching Tool Enhances Splinting Skills

Saeed Reza Mehrpour MD, Mohamadreza Aghamirsalim MD, Seyed Mohammad Kalantar Motamedi MD, MPH, Fatemeh Ardeshir Larijani MD, Reza Sorbi MD

The ability to apply casts and splints is a technical skill that requires practice and understanding of basic principles of musculoskeletal medicine. A video in which a given procedure is simulated on a dummy can represent reality under controlled conditions. A decrease in physician competency in musculoskeletal medicine is the result of educational deficiencies at the medical school level.

Genetic Engineering of Juvenile Human Chondrocytes Improves Scaffold-free Mosaic Neocartilage Grafts

Vincent Y. Ng MD, Seth S. Jump PhD, Kelly S. Santangelo DVM, PhD, Duncan S. Russell BVSc, PhD, Alicia L. Bertone DVM, PhD, ACVS

Current cartilage transplantation techniques achieve suboptimal restoration and rely on patient donor cells or living grafts of chondrocytes.

Lipid-functionalized Dextran Nanosystems to Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Cancer: A Pilot Study

Eisuke Kobayashi MD, PhD, Arun K. Iyer PhD, Francis J. Hornicek MD, PhD, Mansoor M. Amiji PhD, Zhenfeng Duan MD, PhD

The toxicity of anticancer agents and the difficulty in delivering drugs selectively to tumor cells pose a challenge in overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR). Recently, nanotechnology has emerged as a powerful tool in addressing some of the barriers to drug delivery, including MDR in cancer, by utilizing alternate routes of cellular entry and targeted delivery of drugs and genes. However, it is unclear whether doxorubicin (Dox) can be delivered by nanotechnologic approaches.

Wear-Corrosion Synergism in a CoCrMo Hip Bearing Alloy Is Influenced by Proteins

Mathew T. Mathew MD, Joshua J. Jacobs MD, Markus A. Wimmer PhD

Although numerous in vitro studies report on the tribological performance of and, separately, on the corrosion properties of cobalt-based alloys in metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings, the few studies that take into account the synergistic interaction of wear and corrosion (tribocorrosion) have used canonical tribo-test methods. We therefore developed synergistic study using a test method that more closely simulates hip bearing conditions.

Acetabular Cup Design Influences Deformational Response in Total Hip Arthroplasty

John B. Meding MD, Scott R. Small MS, Mary E. Jones, Michael E. Berend MD, Merrill A. Ritter MD

Press-fit acetabular components are susceptible to deformation in an underreamed socket, with excessive deformation of metal-on-metal (MOM) components potentially leading to increased torsional friction and micromotion. Specifically, however, it remains unclear how cup diameter, design, and time from implantation affect shell deformation.

GNAS1 and PHD2 Short-interfering RNA Support Bone Regeneration in Vitro and in an in Vivo Sheep Model

Carmen N. Ríos BS, Roman J. Skoracki MD, Anshu B. Mathur PhD

Our ability to guide cells in biomaterials for in vivo bone repair is limited and requires novel strategies. Short-interfering RNA (siRNA) allows the regulation of multiple cellular pathways. Core binding factor alpha 1 (Cbfa1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) pathways can be modulated to direct bone formation via siRNA against guanine nucleotide-binding protein alpha-stimulating activity polypeptide 1 (siGNAS1) and prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2 (siPHD2), respectively.

Immune and Inflammatory Pathways are Involved in Inherent Bone Marrow Ossification

Umut Atakan Gurkan PhD, Ryan Golden BS, Vipuil Kishore PhD, Catherine P. Riley MS, Jiri Adamec PhD, Ozan Akkus PhD

Bone marrow plays a key role in bone formation and healing. Although a subset of marrow explants ossifies in vitro without excipient osteoinductive factors, some explants do not undergo ossification. The disparity of outcome suggests a significant heterogeneity in marrow tissue in terms of its capacity to undergo osteogenesis.

VEGF Improves Skeletal Muscle Regeneration After Acute Trauma and Reconstruction of the Limb in a Rabbit Model

Soenke Percy Frey MD, Hendrik Jansen MD, Michael J. Raschke MD, Rainer H. Meffert MD, Sabine Ochman MD

Complicated tibial fractures with severe soft tissue trauma are challenging to treat. Frequently associated acute compartment syndrome can result in scarring of muscles with impaired function. Several studies have shown a relationship between angiogenesis and more effective muscle regeneration. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is associated with angiogenesis but it is not clear whether it would restore muscle force, reduce scarring, and aid in muscle regeneration after acute musculoskeletal trauma.

Surgical Revascularization Induces Angiogenesis in Orthotopic Bone Allograft

Wouter F. Willems MD, Thomas Kremer MD, Patricia Friedrich AAS, Allen T. Bishop MD

Remodeling of structural bone allografts relies on adequate revascularization, which can theoretically be induced by surgical revascularization. We developed a new orthotopic animal model to determine the technical feasibility of axial arteriovenous bundle implantation and resultant angiogenesis.